## sc/utilities [ Modules ]

[ Top ] [ Modules ]

NAME

``` utilities

File:             utilities.lsp

Class Hierarchy:  none: no classes defined

Version:          1.0.12

Project:          slippery chicken (algorithmic composition)

Purpose:          Various helper functions of a general nature.

Author:           Michael Edwards: m@michael-edwards.org

Creation date:    June 24th 2002

SVN ID: \$Id\$
```

## utilities/a-weighting [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Implementation of A-weighting loudness compensation.  Formula taken from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A-weighting.  This doesn't take 1000Hz
loudness into account, rather it implements the 40-phon Fletcher-Munson
curve only.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` The frequency in Hertz for which to find the loudness weighting.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` keyword aguments:
- :expt. A power (exponent) to raise the result to in order to
tame/exaggerate the curve (make the db weightings less/more
extreme). This only really makes sense if :linear t though will work
with db values also of course.  Values < 1 result in linear values
closer to 1 (less extreme).  Values > 1 are further from 1. Default = NIL
i.e. no exponential function.
- :linear.  If T return amplitude values as linear scalers rather than
logarithmic decibel values.  NB If this is NIL then returned values are
likely to be negative (db) values.  Default = T.
- :invert.  As the weighting routine tries to tell us what relative
loudness we'll perceive given constant amplitudes, low and high
frequencies will return negative values as we perceive them Xdb less
than our most sensitive frequency area.  If :invert t, just flip this
negatives to positives so that if :linear T you get a scaler to make
lower/higher frequences equally loud as the most sensitive frequencies.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` The linear or db weighting value for the given frequency.
```

EXAMPLE

```;;; Decibels:
(a-weighting 50 :invert nil :linear nil) => -30.274979
(a-weighting 50 :invert t :linear nil) => 30.274979
;;; Linear amplitude scalers:
(a-weighting 50) => 32.639904
(a-weighting 50 :invert nil) => 0.030637344
;;; Exaggeration:
(a-weighting 50 :expt 1.1) => 46.251286
;;; Smoothing:
(a-weighting 50 :expt .5) => 5.7131343

;;; Looping through the MIDI note range by tritones returning decibel values:
(loop for midi from 0 to 127 by 6
for freq = (midi-to-freq midi)
collect (list (midi-to-note midi)
(a-weighting freq :linear nil :invert nil)))
=>
((C-1 -76.85258) (FS-1 -65.94491) (C0 -55.819363) (FS0 -46.71565)
(C1 -38.714867) (FS1 -31.724197) (C2 -25.598646) (FS2 -20.247103)
(C3 -15.622625) (FS3 -11.657975) (C4 -8.258142) (FS4 -5.358156)
(C5 -2.9644737) (FS5 -1.1277018) (C6 0.13445985) (FS6 0.8842882) (C7 1.226917)
(FS7 1.2351798) (C8 0.89729404) (FS8 0.09495151) (C9 -1.3861179)
(FS9 -3.7814288))

;;; Similar but returning linear amplitude scalers:
(loop for midi from 0 to 127 by 6
for freq = (midi-to-freq midi)
collect (list (midi-to-note midi) (a-weighting freq)))
=>
((C-1 6960.316) (FS-1 1982.6475) (C0 617.9711) (FS0 216.6619) (C1 86.246864)
(FS1 38.56647) (C2 19.051636) (FS2 10.288571) (C3 6.041312) (FS3 3.827355)
(C4 2.5876594) (FS4 1.8531382) (C5 1.4067719) (FS5 1.1386365) (C6 0.9846389)
(FS6 0.9032034) (C7 0.8682687) (FS7 0.86744314) (C8 0.9018521) (FS8 0.9891278)
(C9 1.1730213) (FS9 1.5455086))
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun a-weighting (f &key expt (linear t) (invert t))
```

## utilities/all-members [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Find out whether the members of the list given as the second argument are
all present in the list given as the first argument.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list in which the members of the second argument will be sought.
- A list whose members will be sought in the first argument.

OPTIONAL ARGUMENT
- A comparison function.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` T or NIL.
```

EXAMPLE

```(all-members '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7) '(1 2 3 7))

=> T
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun all-members (list test-list &optional (test #'equal))
```

## utilities/almost-flatten [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` September 4th 2013
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Similar to flatten but allows one level of nesting
```

ARGUMENTS

``` A list with an arbitrary level of nesting.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list with a maximum of one level of nesting
```

EXAMPLE

```(almost-flatten '((1 (2 3 4) (5 (6 7) (8 9 10 (11) 12)) 13) 14 15 (16 17)))
=> (1 (2 3 4) 5 (6 7) 8 9 10 (11) (12) (13) 14 15 (16 17))
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun almost-flatten (nested-list)
```

## utilities/almost-zero [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Return T if a given decimal is within 0.000001 of 0.0.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A number.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - A number that is a user-specified difference for the comparison test.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` T if the number is within the tolerance difference to zero, otherwise NIL.
```

EXAMPLE

```(almost-zero 0.0000007)

=> T
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun almost-zero (num &optional (tolerance 0.000001))
```

## utilities/amp2db [ Methods ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Methods ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Convert a standard digital amplitude value (>0.0 to 1.0) to a corresponding
decibel value.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A decimal number between >0.0 and 1.0.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A decimal number that is a value in decibel.
```

EXAMPLE

```(amp2db 0.3)

=> -10.457575
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defmacro amp2db (amp)
```

## utilities/amplitude-to-dynamic [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Convert a specified digital amplitude between 0.0 and 1.0 to a
corresponding dynamic between niente and ffff.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A decimal number between 0.0 and 1.0.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - T or NIL to indicate whether to print a warning if the specified
amplitude is <0.0 or >1.0. T = warn. Default = T.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A symbol that is a dynamic level.
```

EXAMPLE

```(amplitude-to-dynamic 0.3)

=> PP
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun amplitude-to-dynamic (amp &optional (warn t))
```

## utilities/auto-scale-env [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` August 29th 2013
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Automatically scale both the x and y values of an envelope to fit within
the given ranges. Normally we'll assume that the minimum and maximum Y
values are present in the original envelope and so the automatically scaled
envelope will represent these with the new minimum and maximum
values. However sometimes an envelope doesn't range over the possible
extremes, for example (0 .3 100 .6) where the y range is from 0 to 1. If
this is the case and you need a scaled envelope to take this into account,
then how is the original envelopes minimum and maximum values to the
keyword argument :orig-y-range.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - The envelope: a list of x y pairs
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` keyword arguments:
- :x-min: The new minimum (starting) x value
- :x-max: The new maximum (last) x value
- :y-min: The new minimum (not necessarily starting!) y value
- :y-max: The new maximum (not necessarily starting!) y value
- :orig-y-range: a two-element list specifying the original envelope's
minimum and maximum values (see above).
```

RETURN VALUE

``` The new envelope (list).
```

EXAMPLE

```(auto-scale-env '(0 0 10 1))
=>
(0.0 0.0 100.0 10.0)

(auto-scale-env '(-1 0 .3 -3 1 1) :y-min 5 :y-max 6 :x-min 2)
=>
(2.0 5.75 65.7 5.0 100.0 6.0))

(auto-scale-env '(0 1 5 1.5 7 0 10 1) :y-min -15 :y-max -4)
=>
(0.0 -7.6666665 50.0 -4.0 70.0 -15.0 100.0 -7.6666665))

(auto-scale-env '(0 .5 100 .5) :y-min 1 :y-max 2)
=> (0.0 1.0 100.0 1.0)

(auto-scale-env '(0 .5 100 .5) :y-min 1 :y-max 2 :orig-y-range '(0 1))
=> (0.0 1.5 100.0 1.5)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun auto-scale-env (env &key
(x-min 0.0) (x-max 100.0)
(y-min 0.0) (y-max 10.0)
orig-y-range)
```

## utilities/between [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Return a random number between two specified numbers. If the two numbers are
integers, the random selection is inclusive. If either are floating-point
(decimal) numbers, the result will be a float between the first (inclusive)
and just less than the second (i.e. exclusive).
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A first, lower, number.
- A second, higher, number.

NB: The first number must always be lower than the second.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - T or NIL to indicate whether the random seed should be fixed.
- T or NIL to indicate whether, when fixed-random is set to T, we should
reset the random number generator (to guarantee the same random
sequences). This would generally only be called once, perhaps at the
start of a generation procedure.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` An integer if both numbers are integers, or a float if one or both are
decimal numbers.
```

EXAMPLE

```;;; Using the defaults. This will produce a different result each time.
(loop repeat 10 collect (between 1 100))

=> (43 63 26 47 28 2 99 93 66 23)

;;; Setting fixed-random to T and using zerop to reset the random when i is 0
(loop repeat 5
collect (loop for i from 0 to 9 collect (between 1 100 t (zerop i))))

=> ((93 2 38 81 43 19 70 18 44 26) (93 2 38 81 43 19 70 18 44 26)
(93 2 38 81 43 19 70 18 44 26) (93 2 38 81 43 19 70 18 44 26)
(93 2 38 81 43 19 70 18 44 26))
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun between (low high &optional fixed-random restart)
```

## utilities/between-extremes [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` April 23rd 2016, Edinburgh
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Given a <progress> value of between 0 and 1, we'll return whatever that
proportion is of the difference between <min> and <max> added to min. NB No
randomness here.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - the minimum value (returned when <progress> is 0.0)
- the maximum value (returned when <progress> is 1.0)
- a value between
```

RETURN VALUE

``` a number between min and max
```

EXAMPLE

```(BETWEEN-EXTREMES 0.5 1 0.5)
==> 0.75
(BETWEEN-EXTREMES 0.5 1 0.9)
==> 0.95
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun between-extremes (min max progress)
```

## utilities/combine-into-symbol [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Combine a sequence of elements of any combination of type string, number,
or symbol into a symbol.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A sequence of elements.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A symbol as the primary value, with the length of that symbol as a
secondary value.
```

EXAMPLE

```(combine-into-symbol "test" 1 'a)

=> TEST1A, 6
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun combine-into-symbol (&rest params)
```

## utilities/db2amp [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Convert a decibel value to a standard digital amplitude value (>0.0 to 1.0),
whereby 0dB = 1.0.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A number that is a value in decibel.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A decimal number between >0.0 and 1.0.
```

EXAMPLE

```(db2amp -3)

=> 0.70794576
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defmacro db2amp (db)
```

## utilities/decimal-places [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` 19-Mar-2012
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Round the given number to the specified number of decimal places.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A number.
- An integer that is the number of decimal places to which to round the
given number.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A decimal number.
```

EXAMPLE

```(decimal-places 1.1478349092347 2)

=> 1.15
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun decimal-places (num places)
```

## utilities/decimate-env [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Reduce the number of x,y pairs in an envelope.  In every case the envelope
is first stretched along the x-axis to fit the new number of points
required.  Then we proceed by one of three methods:

1) average: for every new output x value, interpolate 100 times from -0.5
to +0.5 around the point, then average the y value.  This will catch
clustering but round out spikes caused by them

2) points: also an averaging method but only using the existing points in
the original envelope (unless none is present for a new x value, whereupon
interpolation is used): Take an average of the (several) points nearest the
new output point. This might not recreate the extremes of the original
envelope but clustering is captured, albeit averaged.

3) interpolate: for each new output point, interpolate the new y value from
the original envelope.  This will leave out details in the case of
clustering, but accurately catch peaks if there are enough output points.

In each case we create an even spread of x values, rather than clustering
where clusters exist in the original.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - the original envelope (list of x,y values on any scales).
- the number of points required in the output list.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - the method to be applied (symbol): 'points, 'average, 'interpolate.
Default = 'points.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list representing the x,y values of the new envelope
```

EXAMPLE

```(decimate-env '(0 0 4 4 5 5 5.1 5.1 5.3 1 5.6 5.6 6 6 10 10) 6)
=>
(0.0 0.0 1 2.0 2 4.5 3 4.425 4 8.0 5.0 10.0)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun decimate-env (env num-points &optional (method 'points))
```

## utilities/down-up [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` May 8th 2016
```

DESCRIPTION

``` This is a routine used in morphing maps but may be useful elsewhere. It
interpolates between two numbers over a given number of steps before
returning back to the first number.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - the number of steps over which the procedure should interpolate
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` keyword arguments:
- :down. T or NIL: whether to first descend before ascending. Default = T
- :up. T or NIL: whether to ascend after descending. Default = T
- :start. The number to start at. Default = 1.0
- :target. The number to interpolate towards. Default = 0.0.
- :cons. Whether to return :start as the first number in the result list.
- :butlast. Whether to omit the :start when ascending. Default = T.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list of numbers.
```

EXAMPLE

```(mapcar #'(lambda (x) (decimal-places x 2)) (down-up 20))
--> (0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.09 0.18 0.27 0.36 0.45 0.55 0.64
0.73 0.82 0.91)
(mapcar #'(lambda (x) (decimal-places x 2)) (down-up 20 :cons t))
--> (1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
0.9)
(mapcar #'(lambda (x) (decimal-places x 2)) (down-up 20 :butlast nil))
--> (0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
1.0)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun down-up (steps &key (down t) (up t) (start 1.0d0) (target 0.0d0)
(cons nil) (butlast t))
```

## utilities/dynamic-to-amplitude [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Convert a symbol that is a dynamic level between niente and ffff to a
corresponding digital amplitude value between 0.0 and 1.0.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A symbol that is a dynamic level between niente and fff.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - T or NIL to indicate whether to print a warning when the symbol specified
is not recognized as a dynamic. T = warn. Default = T.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A decimal number between 0.0 and 1.0.
```

EXAMPLE

```(dynamic-to-amplitude 'fff)

=> 0.9
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun dynamic-to-amplitude (dynamic &optional (warn t))
```

## utilities/econs [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Add a specified element to the end of an existing list.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list.
- An element to add to the end of the list.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A new list.
```

EXAMPLE

```(econs '(1 2 3 4) 5)

=>  '(1 2 3 4 5)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun econs (list new-back)
```

## utilities/env-plus [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Increase all y values of a given list of break-point pairs by a specified
amount.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - An envelope in the form of a list of break-point pairs.
- A number that is the amount by which all y values of the given envelope
are to be increased.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list of break-point pairs.
```

EXAMPLE

```(env-plus '(0 0 25 11 50 13 75 19 100 23) 7.1)

=> (0 7.1 25 18.1 50 20.1 75 26.1 100 30.1)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun env-plus (env add)
```

## utilities/env-symmetrical [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Create a new list of break-point pairs that is symmetrical to the original
around a specified center. If no center is specified, the center value
defaults to 0.5
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - An envelope in the form of a list of break-point pairs.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - A number that is the center value around which the values of the
new list are to be symmetrical.
- A number that is to be the minimum value for the y values returned.
- A number that is to be the maximum value for the y values returned.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` An envelope in the form of a list of break-point pairs.
```

EXAMPLE

```;;; Default center is 0.5
(env-symmetrical '(0 0 25 11 50 13 75 19 100 23))

=> (0 1.0 25 -10.0 50 -12.0 75 -18.0 100 -22.0)

;; Specifying a center of 0
(env-symmetrical '(0 0 25 11 50 13 75 19 100 23) 0)

=> (0 0.0 25 -11.0 50 -13.0 75 -19.0 100 -23.0)

;;; Specifying minimum and maximum y values for the envelope returned
(env-symmetrical '(0 0 25 11 50 13 75 19 100 23) 0 -20 -7)

=> (0 -7 25 -11.0 50 -13.0 75 -19.0 100 -20)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun env-symmetrical (env &optional (centre .5)
(min most-negative-double-float)
(max most-positive-double-float))
```

## utilities/env2gnuplot [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` 24th December 2013
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Write a data file of x,y envelope values for use with gnuplit.  Once called
start gnuplot and issue commands such as:
gnuplot> set terminal postscript default
gnuplot> set output '/tmp/env.ps'
gnuplot> plot '/tmp/env.txt' with lines.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - The envelope as the usual list of x y pairs
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - The pathname of the data file to write.  Default = "/tmp/env.txt".
```

RETURN VALUE

``` Always T
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun env2gnuplot (env &optional (file "/tmp/env.txt"))
```

## utilities/envelope-boundaries [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Find sharp changes in envelope values. These are defined as when a y value
rises or falls over 30% (by default) of it's overall range within 5%
(again, by default) of its overall x axis range.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` The envelope (a list of x y pairs).
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - jump-threshold: the minimum percentage change in y value that is deemed a
sharp change.
- steepness-min: the maximum percentage of the overall x axis that
constitutes a 'quick' change.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list of x values at which boundaries are deemed to lie.
```

EXAMPLE

```(ENVELOPE-BOUNDARIES '(0 10 20 10 21 3 25 4 26 9 50 7 51 1 55 2 56 7 70 10
100 10))
--> (21 26 51 56)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun envelope-boundaries (envelope &optional (jump-threshold 30)
(steepness-min 5))
```

## utilities/equal-within-tolerance [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Test whether the difference between two decimal numbers falls within a
specified tolerance.

This test is designed to compensate for calculation discrepancies caused by
floating-point errors (such as 2.0 vs. 1.9999997), in which the equations
should yield equal numbers. It is intended to be used in place of = in such
circumstances.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A first number.
- A second number.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - A decimal value that is the maximum difference allowed between the two
numbers that will still return T. Default = 0.000001d0.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` T if the two tested numbers are equal within the specified tolerance,
otherwise NIL.
```

EXAMPLE

```;; An example of floating-point error
(loop for i from 0.0 below 1.1 by 0.1 collect i)

=> (0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.70000005 0.8000001 0.9000001 1.0000001)

;; Using =
(loop for i from 0.0 below 1.1 by 0.1
for j in '(0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0)
collect (= i j))

=> (T T T T T T T NIL NIL NIL NIL)

;; Using equal-within-tolerance
(loop for i from 0.0 below 1.1 by 0.1
for j in '(0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0)
collect (equal-within-tolerance i j))

=> (T T T T T T T T T T T)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun equal-within-tolerance (a b &optional (tolerance 0.000001d0))
```

## utilities/exaggerate-env [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Makes the y values in an envelope more radically pushed towards its
extremes. Y values below the mid-point will be pushed downwards; those
above will be pushed upwards. The opposite can be accomplished by making
the exponent argument > 1 (see below).
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - the envelope: a list of numbers representing an envelope: x y pairs
- the exponent: this determines the amount of
exaggeration. Counterintuitively perhaps, the lower values are than 1 the
more exaggeration takes place. Values > 1 will mean the opposite:
understated y values, if you will.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - easy-expt: because of the counterintuitive nature of the exponent, you
can pass values between -10 and +10 if this third argument is T. This
will be scaled to useful though not over-extreme exponents of 1.9 (-10)
to .1 (+10) with 0 equating to an exponent of 1, i.e. no change.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` The new exaggerated envelope (a list).
```

EXAMPLE

```(exaggerate-env '(0 0 50 .8 100 1) 1.9)
--> (0 0.0 50 0.6894338 100 1.0)
(exaggerate-env '(0 0 50 .8 100 1) .1)
--> (0 0.0 50 0.9751001 100 1.0)
(exaggerate-env '(0 0 50 .8 100 1) -10)
--> (0 0.0 50 83.19083 100 1.0)
(exaggerate-env '(0 0 50 .8 100 1) -10 t)
--> (0 0.0 50 0.6894338 100 1.0)
(exaggerate-env '(0 0 50 .8 100 1) 0 t)
--> (0 0.0 50 0.8 100 1.0)
(exaggerate-env '(0 0 50 .8 100 1) 10 t)
--> (0 0.0 50 0.9751001 100 1.0)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun exaggerate-env (env expt &optional easy-expt)
```

## utilities/factor [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Boolean test to check if a specified number is a multiple of a second
specified number.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A number that will be tested to see if it is a multiple of the second
number.
- A second number that is the base number for the factor test.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` T if the first number is a multiple of the second number, otherwise NIL.
```

EXAMPLE

```(factor 14 7)

=> T
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun factor (num fac)
```

## utilities/flatten [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Return a list of nested lists of any depth as a flat list.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list of nested lists.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A flat list.
```

EXAMPLE

```(flatten '((1 (2 3 4) (5 (6 7) (8 9 10 (11) 12)) 13) 14 15 (16 17)))

=> (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun flatten (nested-list)
```

## utilities/force-length [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` 03-FEB-2011
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Create a new a list of a specified new length by adding or removing items
at regular intervals from the original list. If adding items and the list
contains numbers, linear interpolation will be used, but only between two
adjacent items; i.e. not with a partial increment.

NB: The function can only create new lists that have a length between 1 and
1 less than double the length of the original list.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A flat list.
- A number that is the new length of the new list to be derived from the
original list. This number must be a value between 1 and 1 less than
double the length of the original list.
```

RETURN VALUE

EXAMPLE

```;;; Shortening a list
(force-length (loop for i from 1 to 100 collect i) 17)

=> (1 7 13 20 26 32 39 45 51 57 63 70 76 82 89 95 100)

;;; Lengthening a list
(force-length (loop for i from 1 to 100 collect i) 199)

=> (1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12
12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5 18 18.5 19 19.5 20 20.5 21
21.5 22 22.5 23 23.5 24 24.5 25 25.5 26 26.5 27 27.5 28 28.5 29 29.5 30
30.5 31 31.5 32 32.5 33 33.5 34 34.5 35 35.5 36 36.5 37 37.5 38 38.5 39
39.5 40 40.5 41 41.5 42 42.5 43 43.5 44 44.5 45 45.5 46 46.5 47 47.5 48
48.5 49 49.5 50 50.5 51 51.5 52 52.5 53 53.5 54 54.5 55 55.5 56 56.5 57
57.5 58 58.5 59 59.5 60 60.5 61 61.5 62 62.5 63 63.5 64 64.5 65 65.5 66
66.5 67 67.5 68 68.5 69 69.5 70 70.5 71 71.5 72 72.5 73 73.5 74 74.5 75
75.5 76 76.5 77 77.5 78 78.5 79 79.5 80 80.5 81 81.5 82 82.5 83 83.5 84
84.5 85 85.5 86 86.5 87 87.5 88 88.5 89 89.5 90 90.5 91 91.5 92 92.5 93
93.5 94 94.5 95 95.5 96 96.5 97 97.5 98 98.5 99 99.5 100)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun force-length (list new-len)
```

## utilities/get-clusters [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Takes a list with (ascending) numbers and creates sublists of those numbers
within <threshold> of each other.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` A list of (ascending) numbers. NB Though the numbers don't have to be in
ascending order, the design application of the function makes most sense if
they are.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` The maximum distance between two numbers in order for them to be considered
as part of the same cluster.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list with clusters in sublists.
```

EXAMPLE

```(get-clusters '(24 55 58 59 60 81 97 102 106 116 118 119 145 149 151 200 210
211 214 217 226 233 235 236 237 238 239 383 411 415 419))
--> (24 (55 58 59 60) 81 (97 102 106) (116 118 119) (145 149 151) 200
(210 211 214 217) 226 (233 235 236 237 238 239) 383 (411 415 419))

(get-clusters '(0 .1 .3 .7 1.5 1.55 2 4.3 6.3 6.4) 1)
--> ((0 0.1 0.3 0.7 1.5 1.55 2) 4.3 (6.3 6.4))

(get-clusters '(0 .1 .3 .7 1.5 1.55 2 4.3 6.3 6.4) 0.5)
--> ((0 0.1 0.3 0.7) (1.5 1.55 2) 4.3 (6.3 6.4))
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun get-clusters (list &optional (threshold 5))
```

## utilities/get-harmonics [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Return a list of the harmonic partial frequencies in Hertz from a
specified (usually fundamental) frequency.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A number that is the fundamental or starting frequency in Hertz.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` keyword arguments
- :start-partial. An integer that is the number of the first harmonic
partial to return. Default = 1.
- :min-freq. A number that is the lowest frequency in Hertz to
return. Default = 20.
- :max-freq. A number that is the highest frequency in Hertz to
return. Default = 20000.
- :start-freq-is-partial.  Rather than treating the first argument as the
fundamental, treat it as the partial number indicated by this argument.
Default = 1.
- :max-results.  The maximum number of harmonics to return.  Default =
most-positive-fixnum
- :skip. The increment for the harmonics.  If 1, then we ascend the
harmonics series one partial at a time; 2 would mean skipping every other
Default = 1.
- :pitches. Return a list of pitch objects instead of frequencies. Default =
NIL.
- :notes. Return a list of 2-element sublists: note symbols in the
chromatics scale, with cent deviations
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list of numbers that are the frequencies in Hertz of harmonic partials
above the same fundamental frequency, or with the respective keyword, as
pitch objects or note symbols
```

EXAMPLE

```;;; Get the first 15 harmonic partials above a fundamental pitch of 64 Hertz,
;;; starting with partial 2, and specifying an upper cut-off of 1010 Hz.

(get-harmonics 63 :start-partial 2 :max-freq 1010)

=> (126 189 252 315 378 441 504 567 630 693 756 819 882 945 1008)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun get-harmonics (start-freq &key (start-partial 1) (min-freq 20)
(start-freq-is-partial 1) (max-freq 20000)
(skip 1)
pitches notes
(max-results most-positive-fixnum))
```

## utilities/get-parameters [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` January 29th 2021
```

DESCRIPTION

``` A general routine for searching text files for parameters and their
values. Here we search a file line by line, matching parameters and
returning them in a list of parameter-value pairs. This is limited, however,
to one parameter per line, and values of one word (i.e. numbers, strings,
etc. not containing space).
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - the text file to search
- either a single string or list thereof to search for (case-sensitive)
- the separator character which divides the parameter name from its value
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - the parameter-value separator (character)
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list of parameter-value pairs
```

EXAMPLE

```;;; search a reaper file, where parameters are followed simply by space rather
;;; than = or : E.g. a current reaper file has lines like:
SNAPOFFS 0
LENGTH 0.36292517006803
LOOP 1
ALLTAKES 0
FADEIN 2 0 0 2 0 1 1
FADEOUT 2 0 0 2 0 -1 -1
MUTE 0 0
MIXFLAG 1
BEAT 2
SEL 1
IGUID {3B79D8DF-AC08-EC4F-B93C-CAFE24FA1CBB}
IID 3
NAME sunni-mosque.wav
VOLPAN 1 0 1 -1
SOFFS 0.67933106575964
PLAYRATE 1 1 0 -1 0 0.0025
;;; hence:
(get-parameters "~/projects/sndfilenet/reaper/sunni-mosque-split.RPP"
'("SOFFS" "LENGTH") #\ )
-->
(("LENGTH" 0.36292517) ("SOFFS" 0.67933106) ("LENGTH" 0.38848072)
("SOFFS" 1.0422562) ("LENGTH" 1.4923356) ("SOFFS" 1.430737)
("LENGTH" 1.9968253) ("SOFFS" 2.9230726) ("LENGTH" 0.5023356)
("SOFFS" 4.919898) ("LENGTH" 0.4907483) ("SOFFS" 5.4222336)
("LENGTH" 0.17068027) ("SOFFS" 5.912982) ("LENGTH" 3.6765532)
...
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun get-parameters (file parameters &optional (separator #\=))
```

## utilities/get-sublist-indices [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Get the starting position of sublists within a list as though the complete
set of items were a flat list.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list of lists.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list of integers that are the indices of the sublists.
```

EXAMPLE

```(get-sublist-indices '((1 2) (3 4 5 6) (7 8 9) (10 11 12 13 14) (15)))

=> (0 2 6 9 14)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun get-sublist-indices (list)
```

## utilities/get-sublist-lengths [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Get the lengths of all sublists in a given list.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list of lists.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - T or NIL to indicate whether to first remove zeros caused by empty
sublists from the result.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list of integers.
```

EXAMPLE

```;; Straightforward usage allows zeros in the result
(get-sublist-lengths '((1 2) (3 4 5 6) (7 8 9) (10 11 12 13 14) ()))

=> (2 4 3 5 0)

;; Setting the optional argument to T removes zeros from the result

(get-sublist-lengths '((1 2) (3 4 5 6) (7 8 9) (10 11 12 13 14) ()) t)

=> (2 4 3 5)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun get-sublist-lengths (list &optional (remove-zeros nil))
```

## utilities/hailstone [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Implementation of the Collatz conjecture (see
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collatz_conjecture)

The Collatz conjecture suggests that by starting with a given number, and
if it is even dividing it by two or if it is odd multiplying it by three
and adding one, then repeating with the new result, the process will
eventually always result in one.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A number to start with.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list of the results collected from each iteration starting with the
specified number and ending with one.
```

EXAMPLE

```(hailstone 11)

=> (11 34 17 52 26 13 40 20 10 5 16 8 4 2 1)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun hailstone (n)
```

## utilities/hz2ms [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Convert a frequency in Hertz to the equivalent number of milliseconds.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A number that is a Hertz frequency.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A number that is the millisecond equivalent of the specified Hertz
frequency.
```

EXAMPLE

```(hz2ms 261.63)

=> 3.8221915
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun hz2ms (hertz)
```

## utilities/interleave [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Interleave the elements of an aribitrary number of lists. Should the lists
not be of the same length, this function will only use up as many elements
as in the shortest list.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` As many lists as need to be interleaved.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A new list of interleaved elements.
```

EXAMPLE

```(INTERLEAVE '(1 2 3 4 5) '(a b c d) '(x y z))
--> (1 A X 2 B Y 3 C Z)

(INTERLEAVE '(1 2 3 4 5) '(a b c d e) '(v w x y z))
--> (1 A V 2 B W 3 C X 4 D Y 5 E Z)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun interleave (&rest lists)
```

## utilities/interpolate [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Get the interpolated value at a specified point within an envelope. The
envelope must be specified in the form of a list of break-point pairs.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A number that is the point within the specified envelope for which to
return the interpolated value.
- A list of break-point pairs.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` keyword arguments:
- :scaler. A number that is the factor by which to scale the values of
the break-point pairs in the given envelope before retrieving the
interpolated value. Default = 1.
- :exp. A number that is the exponent to which the result should be
raised. Default = 1.
- :warn. T or NIL to indicate whether the method should print a warning if
the specified point is outside of the bounds of the x-axis specified in
the list of break-point pairs. T = warn. Default = T.
```

RETURN VALUE

EXAMPLE

```;;; Using the defaults
(interpolate 50 '(0 0 100 1))

=> 0.5

;;; Specifying a different scaler
(interpolate 50 '(0 0 100 1) :scaler 2)

=> 1.0

;;; Specifying a different exponent by which the result is to be raised
(interpolate 50 '(0 0 100 1) :exp 2)

=> 0.25
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun interpolate (point env &key (scaler 1) (exp 1) (warn t))
```

## utilities/invert-env [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` June 15th 2017, Edinburgh
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Invert an envelope so that its maximum value becomes its minimum,
vice-versa, and everything inbetween.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` A list of X-Y breakpoint pairs
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list of X-Y breakpoint pairs exhibiting the inversion.
```

EXAMPLE

```(invert-env '(0 0 100 1)) -> (0 1.0 100 0.0)
(invert-env '(0 .3 40 .4 100 .9)) -> (0 0.9 40 0.79999995 100 0.3)
(invert-env '(0 -.9 40 .4 100 .9)) -> (0 0.9 40 -0.39999998 100 -0.9)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun invert-env (env)
```

## utilities/list-to-string [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Convert a list to a string.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - A string that will serve as a separator between the elements.
Default = " ".
- T or NIL to indicate whether a list value of NIL is to be returned as
"NIL" or NIL. T = "NIL" as a string. Default = T.
```

RETURN VALUE

EXAMPLE

```;;; Using defaults
(list-to-string '(1 2 3 4 5))

=> "1 2 3 4 5"

;;; Specifying a different separator
(list-to-string '(1 2 3 4 5) "-")

=> "1-2-3-4-5"

;;; A NIL list returns "NIL" as a string by default
(list-to-string NIL)

=> "nil"

;;; Setting the second optional argument to NIL returns a NIL list as NIL
;;; rather than as "NIL" as a string
(list-to-string NIL "" nil)

=> NIL
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun list-to-string (list &optional (separator " ") (nil-as-string t))
```

## utilities/logarithmic-steps [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Create a list of numbers progressing from the first specified argument to
the second specified argument over the specified number of steps using an
exponential curve rather than linear interpolation.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A number that is the starting value in the resulting list.
- A number that is the ending value in the resulting list.
- An integer that will be the length of the resulting list - 1.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - A number that will be used as the exponent when determining the
exponential interpolation between values. Default = 2.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list of numbers.
```

EXAMPLE

```(logarithmic-steps 1 100 19)

=> (1.0 1.3055556 2.2222223 3.75 5.888889 8.638889 12.0 15.972222 20.555555
25.75 31.555555 37.97222 45.0 52.63889 60.88889 69.75 79.22222 89.30556
100.0)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun logarithmic-steps (low high num-steps &optional (exponent 2))
```

## utilities/middle [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Get the number value that is middle of two number values.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A first number.
- A second number.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A number.
```

EXAMPLE

```(middle 7 92)

=> 49.5
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun middle (lower upper)
```

## utilities/mins-secs-to-secs [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Derive the number of seconds from a minutes-seconds value that is indicated
as a string of the form "0:00.000" or a two-item list in the form '(minutes
seconds) or three-item list in the form '(minutes seconds milliseconds)
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A time in minutes and seconds, as described above.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - if a string is to be passed, then a character that denotes the separator
between minutes and seconds. Default = #\:
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A decimal number that is a number in seconds.
```

EXAMPLE

```(mins-secs-to-secs '(2 1))
=> 121.0
(mins-secs-to-secs '(16 59 534)))
=> 1019.534
(mins-secs-to-secs "3:06.829"))
=> 186.829
;; using a different separator character between minutes and seconds
(mins-secs-to-secs "3-36.29" #\-) 0.0001)
=> 216.29
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun mins-secs-to-secs (time &optional (post-mins #\:))
```

## utilities/move-elements [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` 02-Mar-2011
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Move the specified elements from one list (if they are present in that
list) to another, deleting them from the first.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list of elements that are the elements to be moved.
- A list from which the specified elements are to be moved and deleted.
- A list to which the specified elements are to be moved.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - A predicate by which to test that the specified elements are equal to
elements of the source list. Default = #'eq.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` Two values: A first list that is the source list after the items have been
moved; a second list that is the target list after the items have been
moved.
```

EXAMPLE

```(move-elements '(3 5 8) '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9) '(a b c d e))

=> (1 2 4 6 7 9), (8 5 3 A B C D E)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun move-elements (what from to &optional (test #'eq))
```

## utilities/move-to-end [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` 22-May-2011
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Move a specified element of a given list to the end of the list, returning
the new list.

NB: If the element exists more than once in the given list, all but one of
the occurrences will be removed and only one of them will be placed at
the end.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - An item that is an element of the list that is the second argument.
- A list.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list.
```

EXAMPLE

```;;; All unique items
(move-to-end 2 '(1 2 3 4 5))

=> (1 3 4 5 2)

;;; Duplicate items
(move-to-end 2 '(1 2 3 2 4 2 5))

=> (1 3 4 5 2)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun move-to-end (what list &optional (test #'eql))
```

## utilities/nconc-sublists [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Concatenate corresponding sublists of a given list. Each sublist in the
argument should have the same length and number of sublists etc.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` A list of lists.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list of lists.
```

EXAMPLE

```(nconc-sublists '(((1 2) (a b) (cat dog))
((3 4) (c d) (bird fish))
((5 6) (e f) (pig cow))))

=> ((1 2 3 4 5 6) (A B C D E F) (CAT DOG BIRD FISH PIG COW))
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun nconc-sublists (lists)
```

## utilities/nearest [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` 15th May 2020, Heidhausen
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Return the nearest number in a list to the first argument
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - the number we're looking to get the closest to
- the list of numbers we'll search
```

RETURN VALUE

``` the element of the list that's closest to the first argument, the list
sorted by nearest to the number, the distances to the number for the sorted
list.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` none
```

EXAMPLE

```(nearest 1.21 '(4 2 5 3 5 4 1.2 1.3 1.1999))
--> 1.2
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun nearest (num list)
```

## utilities/nearest-power-of-2 [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Return the closest number to the specified value that is a power of two but
not greater than the specified value (unless the optional argument is T:
see below).
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A number.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - T or NIL to indicate whether we can return a power of 2 greater than the
argument, if that is nearer to the argument than the lower power or 2.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` An integer that is a power of two.
```

EXAMPLE

```(nearest-power-of-2 31)

=> 16

(nearest-power-of-2 31 t)

=> 32

(nearest-power-of-2 32)

=> 32

(nearest-power-of-2 33)

=> 32
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun nearest-power-of-2 (num &optional allow>)
```

## utilities/now-string [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

AUTHOR

``` Daniel Ross (mr.danielross[at]gmail[dot]com)
```

DATE

``` Sat 28 Mar 2020 13:21:08 GMT - London
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Return a string representing the current time in the format:
YEAR MONTH DAY - HOURS MINUTES SECONDS
e.g. "20200328-132227"

It is thought that this function might be useful when outputing multiple
files during the test phase of a piece. E.g.
(cmn-display +mini+
:file (concatenate 'string "my-piece" (now-string) ".eps"))
```

ARGUMENTS

``` None
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` None
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A string
```

EXAMPLE

```(now-string)

=> "20200328-132227"

(concatenate 'string "my-piece_" (now-string) ".eps")

=> "my-piece_20200328-133357.eps"
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun now-string ()
```

## utilities/octave-freqs [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` A boolean test to determine whether two specified frequencies are octave
transpositions of the same pitch class.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A first number that is a frequency in Hertz.
- A second number that is a frequency in Hertz.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - T or NIL to indicate whether identical frequencies ("unison") are also
to be considered octave transpositions of the same pitch class.
T = unisons are also octaves. Default = T.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` T or NIL.
```

EXAMPLE

```(octave-freqs 261.63 2093.04)

=> T

(octave-freqs 261.63 3000.00)

=> NIL

(octave-freqs 261.63 261.63)

=> T

(octave-freqs 261.63 261.63 nil)

=> NIL
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun octave-freqs (freq1 freq2 &optional (unison-also t))
```

## utilities/one-to-many [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` June 23rd 2020
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Find a one-to-many relationship between the first argument and a number of
equally-spaced points given in the second argument. The first argument is a
number between 0.0 and 1.0 (inclusive). We calculate the proximities from
this point to the number of points given and return them as a list,
optionally raised to a given exponent. The list returned is scaled so that
all values sum to 1.0, so this is particularly useful for, say, calculating
a number of amplitude scalers for a multi-voice synthesis process.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - the point: a number between 0.0 and 1.0 inclusive
- the number of points to use in the calculation. This will also be the
number of results returned. Alternatively this can be a list of numbers
between 0.0 and 1.0. This way you can pass your own points for e.g. an
unequally-spaced set. In this case though the proximity is still
determined from a maximum of 1.0, not the highest number in the given
list.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - the exponent to raise proximities to. 1.0 will return a linear
relationship. > 1.0 will exaggerate the relationships so that those points
further away from the first argument will be pushed further away than a
linear relationship. < 1.0 will lessen the distances.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` a list of numbers the length of which is the same as the 2nd argument and
the sum of which is 1.0
```

EXAMPLE

```(one-to-many .8 7) -->
(0.045112778 0.082706764 0.12030074 0.15789473 0.19548872 0.21804512 0.18045112)
(one-to-many .8 7 .7) -->
(0.06509622 0.09950039 0.1293403 0.15646003 0.18169008 0.19612299 0.17178996)
(one-to-many .8 7 1.3)  -->
(0.030845987 0.06782856 0.11039718 0.15721251 0.20752355 0.23917702 0.1870151)
;;; passing 5 points: these don't have to have min/max of 0 and 1 ...
(one-to-many .8 '(0 .1 .35 .7 .92)) -->
(0.07067137 0.10600708 0.19434628 0.3180212 0.31095406)
;;; ... and they don't have to be in ascending order either
(one-to-many .8 '(0 .1 .35 .7 .2)) -->
(0.08510638 0.12765959 0.23404254 0.38297874 0.17021276)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun one-to-many (one how-many &optional (expt 1.0))
```

## utilities/parse-audacity-label-file [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` August 12th 2019
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Parse a labels file exported from Audacity and return a list of (start end
label) triplets. Times are in seconds.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - the path to the label file
```

RETURN VALUE

``` a list
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun parse-audacity-label-file (label-file)
```

## utilities/parse-audacity-label-file-for-loops [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Read an audacity label file and return its loop points as groups.

NB: If this fails it's probably because there's a tab between time and
label instead of spaces: save in emacs to detab.

NB: Beware that marker files created on different operating systems from
the one on which this function is called might trigger errors due to
newline character mismatches.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A string that is the name of the label file to be parsed, including
directory path and extension.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` Returns a list of lists which are the grouped time points.

Also prints separate feedback to the listener.
```

EXAMPLE

```(parse-audacity-label-file-for-loops  "/path/to/24-7loops1.txt")

=>

((25.674559 25.829296 26.116327 26.649048 27.038843)
(32.211884 32.33669 32.481815 32.618233 32.716915 32.902676 33.227757
33.61959)
(36.893604 37.059048 37.160633 37.27383 37.439274 37.4683 37.627937)
(39.52907 39.81932 39.999275 40.2634 40.338867 40.605896)
(45.612698 45.818775 46.050976 46.145306 46.275192)
(46.4566 46.644535 46.76934 46.886894 46.971066 47.16553)
(84.15927 84.260864 84.292786 84.355194 84.47274 84.52789 84.556915
84.65415)
...
(676.1075 676.79114 677.1503 677.57904 678.12366)
(799.29205 799.8019 800.58984 800.96063 801.13446 801.45886)
(804.98145 805.2016 805.5724 805.83887 806.31396))
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun parse-audacity-label-file-for-loops (label-file)
```

## utilities/parse-wavelab-marker-file-for-loops [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Read a wavelab marker file and return its loop points as groups.

The marker file must contain markers with the word "loop". A marker with
that name will start a new set of loop points, and nameless markers will
belong to the group until the next "loop" marker.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A string that is the name of the marker file to be parsed, including
directory path and extension.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` keyword arguments:
- :sampling-rate. An integer that is the sampling rate of the sound file to
which the marker file refers. This value will affect the resulting time
points. Default = 44100.
- :max-length. The maximum duration in seconds between two points: anything
greater than this will result in a warning being printed.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` Returns a list of lists which are the grouped time points.

Also prints separate feedback to the listener.
```

EXAMPLE

```(parse-wavelab-marker-file-for-loops "/path/to/24-7loops1.mrk")

=>
WARNING:
utilities::parse-wavelab-marker-file-for-loops
loop points 10:13.213 to 10:14.475 are too long (1.2620239)
WARNING:
utilities::parse-wavelab-marker-file-for-loops
loop points 10:33.223 to 10:34.486 are too long (1.2630615)
WARNING:
utilities::parse-wavelab-marker-file-for-loops
loop points 10:36.456 to 10:37.522 are too long (1.06604)

((25.674559 25.829296 26.116327 26.649048 27.038843)
(32.211884 32.33669 32.481815 32.618233 32.716915 32.902676 33.227757
33.61959)
(36.893604 37.059048 37.160633 37.27383 37.439274 37.4683 37.627937)
(39.52907 39.81932 39.999275 40.2634 40.338867 40.605896)
(45.612698 45.818775 46.050976 46.145306 46.275192)
(46.4566 46.644535 46.76934 46.886894 46.971066 47.16553)
(84.15927 84.260864 84.292786 84.355194 84.47274 84.52789 84.556915
84.65415)
...
(655.91077 656.4554 656.80304 657.4519 658.04285 658.8192)
(676.1075 676.79114 677.1503 677.57904 678.12366)
(799.29205 799.8019 800.58984 800.96063 801.13446 801.45886)
(804.98145 805.2016 805.5724 805.83887 806.31396))
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun parse-wavelab-marker-file-for-loops
(marker-file &key (sampling-rate 44100) (max-length 1.0))
```

## utilities/partial-freqs [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` 13-Dec-2011
```

DESCRIPTION

``` A Boolean test to determine whether either of two specified frequencies
can be considered a harmonic partial of the other.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A first frequency in Hertz.
- A second frequency in Hertz.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - T or NIL to indicate whether identical frequencies ("unison") are also to
be considered partials of each other. T = unison are partials.
Default = T.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` T if one of the frequencies has the ratio of a harmonic partial to the
other, otherwise NIL.
```

EXAMPLE

```(partial-freqs 300 900)

=> T

(partial-freqs 300 700)

=> NIL

(partial-freqs 300 300)

=> T

(partial-freqs 300 300 nil)

=> NIL
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun partial-freqs (freq1 freq2 &optional (unison-also t))
```

## utilities/pdivide [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Creates a list of proportionally related times, dividing a starting
duration into a number of smaller durations a specified number of times.
We start with a proportion as a ratio (e.g. 3/2) and divide the given
duration into two parts according to that ratio.  Then those two parts will
be divided into the same ratios.  This will iterate the number of times
indicated by the second argument.

The following are some classical proportions:
Latin        (Greek)
(3 : 2) Sesquialtera (Diapente)
(4 : 3) Sesquitertia (Diatessaron)
(5 : 4) Sesquiquarta (Diatonus Semitonus)
(8 : 3) Duplasuperbipartiens (Diapson Diatesseron)
(9 : 8) Sesquioctava (Tonus)
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - an integer or ratio (in Lisp terms, a rational) e.g. 3/2
- an integer >=1 specifying the number of times to iterate the process of
dividing the duration into proportions.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` keyword arguments:
- :duration. The overall duration to apply the proportional divisions to.
Units are arbitrary of course as this is just a number. Default 1.0.
- :print. If T, print each level of division as we proceed. Default NIL.
- :reverse. If T reverse the proportion (so 3/2 becomes 2/3). Default NIL.
- :alternate. If T, reverse the proportion every other division (not
iteration) so that if we have a proportion of 3/2 on the second iteration
we divide into 3/2 then 2/3.  Default NIL.
- :increment. If T, then each time we divide we increment both sides of the
proportion,  so 3:2 becomes 4:3 which becomes 5:4 etc.  Default NIL.
- :halves. This will only make a difference if :increment is T: As results
tend overall towards increasing (when numerator < denominator e.g. 2/3) or
decreasing (numerator > denominator e.g. 3/2) numbers, we can mix things
up by dividing the resultant list into two halves and splicing their
elements one after the other.  Default NIL.
- :shuffle. Mix things up by shuffling the resultant list.  As this uses
the shuffle algorithm we have fixed-seed randomness so results will be
the same upon each call within the same Lisp implementation/version.
Default NIL.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` Three values: the list of ascending timings from the last generation of the
calculated proportions; the durations of each part for the last generation;
the list of ascending timings for _each_ generation of the calculated
proportions (a list of lists).
```

EXAMPLE

```Notice here that each generation prints the proportions along with the
durations these correspond to and the start time of each (cumulative durations).

(pdivide 3/2 4 :duration 35 :print t)

PRINTS:
Generation 1: 3 (21.00=21.00), 2 (14.00=35.00),

Generation 2: 3 (12.60=12.60), 2 (8.40=21.00), 3 (8.40=29.40), 2 (5.60=35.00),

Generation 3: 3 (7.56=7.56), 2 (5.04=12.60), 3 (5.04=17.64), 2 (3.36=21.00),
3 (5.04=26.04), 2 (3.36=29.40), 3 (3.36=32.76), 2 (2.24=35.00),

Generation 4: 3 (4.54=4.54), 2 (3.02=7.56), 3 (3.02=10.58), 2 (2.02=12.60),
3 (3.02=15.62), 2 (2.02=17.64), 3 (2.02=19.66), 2 (1.34=21.00), 3 (3.02=24.02),
2 (2.02=26.04), 3 (2.02=28.06), 2 (1.34=29.40), 3 (2.02=31.42), 2 (1.34=32.76),
3 (1.34=34.10), 2 (0.90=35.00),

RETURNS:
(0.0 4.5360003 7.5600004 10.584001 12.6 15.624001 17.640001 19.656002 21.000002
24.024002 26.040003 28.056004 29.400003 31.416004 32.760006 34.104008
35.000008)
(4.5360003 3.0240002 3.0240004 2.0160003 3.0240004 2.0160003 2.0160003
1.3440002 3.0240004 2.0160003 2.0160003 1.3440002 2.0160003 1.3440001
1.3440001 0.896)
((0.0 4.5360003 7.5600004 10.584001 12.6 15.624001 17.640001 19.656002
21.000002 24.024002 26.040003 28.056004 29.400003 31.416004 32.760006
34.104008 35.000008)
(0.0 7.5600004 12.6 17.640001 21.000002 26.040003 29.400003 32.760002
35.000004)
(0.0 12.6 21.0 29.400002 35.0) (0.0 21.0 35.0))

(pdivide 3/2 4 :duration 35 :print t :increment t :halves t)

PRINTS:
Generation 1: 3 (21.00=21.00), 2 (14.00=35.00),

Generation 2: 4 (12.00=12.00), 3 (9.00=21.00), 5 (7.78=28.78), 4 (6.22=35.00),

Generation 3: 6 (6.55=6.55), 5 (5.45=12.00), 7 (4.85=16.85), 6 (4.15=21.00),
8 (4.15=25.15), 7 (3.63=28.78), 9 (3.29=32.07), 8 (2.93=35.00),

Generation 4: 10 (3.44=3.44), 9 (3.10=6.55), 11 (2.86=9.40), 10 (2.60=12.00),
12 (2.53=14.53), 11 (2.32=16.85), 13 (2.16=19.01), 12 (1.99=21.00),
14 (2.15=23.15), 13 (2.00=25.15), 15 (1.88=27.03), 14 (1.75=28.78),
16 (1.70=30.48), 15 (1.59=32.07), 17 (1.51=33.58), 16 (1.42=35.00),

RETURNS:
(0.0 3.4449766 5.595868 8.696347 10.6936035 13.550747 15.428142 18.025545
19.77778 22.30621 24.0064 26.324125 27.918053 30.078053 31.58647 33.580315
35.0)
(3.4449766 2.1508918 3.100479 1.9972568 2.8571434 1.8773947 2.5974028 1.752235
2.5284283 1.7001898 2.317726 1.593928 2.16 1.5084175 1.9938462 1.4196872)
((0.0 3.4449766 6.5454555 9.402599 12.000002 14.52843 16.846155 19.006155
21.000002 23.150894 25.148151 27.025547 28.777782 30.477972 32.0719 33.58032
35.000004)
(0.0 6.5454555 12.000002 16.846157 21.000004 25.148151 28.77778 32.0719
35.000004)
(0.0 12.000001 21.0 28.777779 35.0) (0.0 21.0 35.0))
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun pdivide (start levels &key (duration 1.0) print reverse alternate
halves shuffle increment)
```

## utilities/pexpand [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Instead of dividing an overall duration (pdivide) we start with a
proportion and expand outwards from there, keeping each newly created part
in the same proportion.  This is repeated the number of times specified in
the first argument.  Useful for generating maps (section structure).
```

ARGUMENTS

``` The number of times to expand proportionally.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` As many integer proportions as required.  If the last argument here is t,
then instead of using letters to denote sections we use numbers instead.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` 3 values:
1) a list showing the cumulative count (e.g. bar numbers) of where major
and minor sections occur.  Topmost sections will have the labels A, B, C,
etc. with subsections such as A.A, A.B, ... C.C.C.C.  Of course, wherever a
major section starts, an arbitrary number of subsections also begin, but
only the most major section is present in the list.
2) the structure of the sections and subsections in the form of a list of
sublists for each, and containing the section labels paired with their
length.  The bottommost subsection will have a length of the sum of the
proportions, with higher subsection groupings showing multiples of this.
3) the overall length of the structure produced (also the first element of
the second returned value).
```

EXAMPLE

```;;; 2 generations:
(pexpand 2 3 2) =>
(1 (A) 6 (A A A B) 11 (A A A C) 16 (A A B) 21 (A A B B) 26 (A B) 31 (A B A B)
36 (A B A C) 41 (A B B) 46 (A B B B) 51 (A C) 56 (A C A B) 61 (A C A C) 66
(A C B) 71 (A C B B) 76 (B) 81 (B A A B) 86 (B A A C) 91 (B A B) 96 (B A B B)
101 (B B) 106 (B B A B) 111 (B B A C) 116 (B B B) 121 (B B B B))
(125
(((A) 75)
(((A A) 25) (((A A A) 15) ((A A A A) 5) ((A A A B) 5) ((A A A C) 5))
(((A A B) 10) ((A A B A) 5) ((A A B B) 5)))
(((A B) 25) (((A B A) 15) ((A B A A) 5) ((A B A B) 5) ((A B A C) 5))
(((A B B) 10) ((A B B A) 5) ((A B B B) 5)))
(((A C) 25) (((A C A) 15) ((A C A A) 5) ((A C A B) 5) ((A C A C) 5))
(((A C B) 10) ((A C B A) 5) ((A C B B) 5))))
(((B) 50)
(((B A) 25) (((B A A) 15) ((B A A A) 5) ((B A A B) 5) ((B A A C) 5))
(((B A B) 10) ((B A B A) 5) ((B A B B) 5)))
(((B B) 25) (((B B A) 15) ((B B A A) 5) ((B B A B) 5) ((B B A C) 5))
(((B B B) 10) ((B B B A) 5) ((B B B B) 5)))))
125

;;; 3 generations:
(pexpand 3 3 2) =>
(1 (A) 6 (A A A A A B) 11 (A A A A A C) 16 (A A A A B) 21 (A A A A B B) 26
(A A A B) 31 (A A A B A B) 36 (A A A B A C) 41 (A A A B B) 46 (A A A B B B) 51
(A A A C) 56 (A A A C A B) 61 (A A A C A C) 66 (A A A C B) 71 (A A A C B B) 76
...
581 (B B B A A B) 586 (B B B A A C) 591 (B B B A B) 596 (B B B A B B) 601
(B B B B) 606 (B B B B A B) 611 (B B B B A C) 616 (B B B B B) 621
(B B B B B B))
(625
(((A) 375)
(((A A) 125)
(((A A A) 75)
(((A A A A) 25)
(((A A A A A) 15) ((A A A A A A) 5) ((A A A A A B) 5) ((A A A A A C) 5))
(((A A A A B) 10) ((A A A A B A) 5) ((A A A A B B) 5)))
...
(((B B B) 50)
(((B B B A) 25)
(((B B B A A) 15) ((B B B A A A) 5) ((B B B A A B) 5) ((B B B A A C) 5))
(((B B B A B) 10) ((B B B A B A) 5) ((B B B A B B) 5)))
(((B B B B) 25)
(((B B B B A) 15) ((B B B B A A) 5) ((B B B B A B) 5) ((B B B B A C) 5))
(((B B B B B) 10) ((B B B B B A) 5) ((B B B B B B) 5)))))))
625

;;; 2 generations of 3 proportional values, returning numbers for labels
(pexpand 2 3 2 4 t) =>
(1 (1) 10 (1 1 1 2) 19 (1 1 1 3) 28 (1 1 2) 37 (1 1 2 2) 46 (1 1 3) 55
(1 1 3 2) 64 (1 1 3 3) 73 (1 1 3 4) 82 (1 2) 91 (1 2 1 2) 100 (1 2 1 3) 109
(1 2 2) 118 (1 2 2 2) 127 (1 2 3) 136 (1 2 3 2) 145 (1 2 3 3) 154 (1 2 3 4)
... (3 4 2 2) 694 (3 4 3) 703 (3 4 3 2) 712 (3 4 3 3) 721 (3 4 3 4))

(729
(((1) 243)
(((1 1) 81) (((1 1 1) 27) ((1 1 1 1) 9) ((1 1 1 2) 9) ((1 1 1 3) 9))
(((1 1 2) 18) ((1 1 2 1) 9) ((1 1 2 2) 9))
(((1 1 3) 36) ((1 1 3 1) 9) ((1 1 3 2) 9) ((1 1 3 3) 9) ((1 1 3 4) 9)))
...
(((3 2 2) 18) ((3 2 2 1) 9) ((3 2 2 2) 9))
(((3 2 3) 36) ((3 2 3 1) 9) ((3 2 3 2) 9) ((3 2 3 3) 9) ((3 2 3 4) 9)))
(((3 3) 81) (((3 3 1) 27) ((3 3 1 1) 9) ((3 3 1 2) 9) ((3 3 1 3) 9))
(((3 3 2) 18) ((3 3 2 1) 9) ((3 3 2 2) 9))
(((3 3 3) 36) ((3 3 3 1) 9) ((3 3 3 2) 9) ((3 3 3 3) 9) ((3 3 3 4) 9)))
(((3 4) 81) (((3 4 1) 27) ((3 4 1 1) 9) ((3 4 1 2) 9) ((3 4 1 3) 9))
(((3 4 2) 18) ((3 4 2 1) 9) ((3 4 2 2) 9))
(((3 4 3) 36) ((3 4 3 1) 9) ((3 4 3 2) 9) ((3 4 3 3) 9) ((3 4 3 4) 9)))))
729
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun pexpand (generations &rest proportions)
```

## utilities/pexpand-find [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Find the cumulative number of where a label occurs in a list returned by
pexpand.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - the label we're looking for
- a list of the type returned by pexpand (first returned value).
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - a function to be called when the label cannot be found.  Default =
#'error but could also be #'warn or NIL.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` An integer.
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun pexpand-find (label list &optional (on-error #'error))
```

## utilities/pexpand-section-length [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Return the length (integer) of any arbitrary section in the data returned
by pexpand.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - The (rest of) the kind of list returned as the second value of a call to
pexpand.
- The section ID we want the length of, either as a list or single symbol.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` An integer or NIL if the section can't be found.
```

EXAMPLE

```(pexpand-section-length (rest (nth-value 1 (pexpand 2 3 6 4 5))) '(c a b))
=> 108

(pexpand-section-length (rest (nth-value 1 (pexpand 2 3 6 4 5))) 'c)
=> 1296
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun pexpand-section-length (pexpand-list section)
```

## utilities/power-of-2 [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Test whether the specified number is a power of two and return the
logarithm of the specified number to base 2.

This method returns two values: T or NIL for the test and a decimal that is
the logarithm of the specified number to base 2.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A number.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` Two values: T or NIL for the test and a decimal number that is the
logarithm of the specified number to base 2.
```

EXAMPLE

```(power-of-2 16)

=> T, 4.0

(power-of-2 17.3)

=> NIL, 4.1127
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun power-of-2 (float)
```

## utilities/prime [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` August 5th 2019, Heidhausen
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Taken from dlocsig.lisp by Fernando Lopez Lezcano (in the CLM package):
Return T or NIL to indicated whether the argument is a prime number or not.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` an integer (all other types, including floats, will trigger an error)
```

RETURN VALUE

``` T or NIL
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun prime (val)
```

## utilities/pts2cm [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Convert a specified number of points to a length in centimeters at a
resolution of 72ppi.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A number.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A number.
```

EXAMPLE

```(pts2cm 150)

=> 5.2916665
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun pts2cm (points)
```

## utilities/random-amount [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Return a random number from within a total range of <percent> of the given
number, centering around zero. Thus, if the <number> is 100, and the
<percent> is 5, the results will be a random number between -2.5 and +2.5.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` A number.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` A number that will be a percent of the given number.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A random positive or negative number.
```

EXAMPLE

```;;; Using the default will return numbers within a 5% span of the given number,
;;; centering around zero. With 100 that means between -2.5 and +2.5.
(loop repeat 10 collect (random-amount 100))

=> (0.7424975 -1.4954442 -1.7126495 1.5918689 -0.43478793 -1.7916341 -1.9115914
0.8541988 0.057197176 2.0713913)

;;; Specifying 10% of 80 will return random numbers between -4.0 and +4.0
(loop repeat 10 collect (random-amount 80 10))

=> (-0.66686153 3.0387697 3.4737322 -2.3753185 -0.8495751 -0.47580242
-0.25743783 -1.1395472 1.3560238 -0.5958566)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun random-amount (number &optional (percent 5))
```

## utilities/random-from-list [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Return a random element from a specified list of elements.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - An integer can be passed stating the length of the list, for more
efficient processing. NB: There is no check to ensure this number is
indeed the length of the list. If the number is less than the length of
the list, only elements from the first part of the list will be
returned. If it is greater than the length of the list, the method may
return NIL.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` An element from the specified list.
```

EXAMPLE

```(random-from-list '(3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29))

=> 13
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun random-from-list (list &optional list-length) ; for efficiency
```

## utilities/randomise [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Return a random decimal number close to (+ or -) the number specified
(within a certain percentage of that number's value). Note that if you want
the result to go from 0 to 2x the argument, then <percent> needs to be 200,
not 100.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A number.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - A number that is a percentage value, such that any random number returned
will be within that percentage of the original number's value.
Default = 5.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A decimal number.
```

EXAMPLE

```(loop repeat 10 collect (randomise 100))

=> (99.413795 99.15346 98.682014 100.76199 97.74929 99.05693 100.59494 97.96452
100.42091 100.01329)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun randomise (number &optional (percent 5))
```

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Read a Lisp expression from a file. This is determined by the Lisp
parenthetical syntax.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A string that is a file name including directory path and extension.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` The Lisp expression contained in the file.
```

EXAMPLE

```(read-from-file "/path/to/lisp-lorem-ipsum.txt")

=> (LOREM IPSUM DOLOR SIT AMET CONSECTETUR ADIPISCING ELIT CRAS CONSEQUAT
CONVALLIS JUSTO VITAE CONSECTETUR MAURIS IN NIBH VEL EST TEMPUS LOBORTIS
SUSPENDISSE POTENTI SED MAURIS MASSA ADIPISCING VITAE DIGNISSIM CONDIMENTUM
VOLUTPAT VEL FELIS FUSCE AUGUE DUI PULVINAR ULTRICIES IMPERDIET SED
PHARETRA EU QUAM INTEGER IN VULPUTATE VELIT ALIQUAM ERAT VOLUTPAT VIVAMUS
SIT AMET ORCI EGET EROS CONSEQUAT TINCIDUNT NUNC ELEMENTUM ADIPISCING
LOBORTIS MORBI AT LOREM EST EGET MATTIS ERAT DONEC AC RISUS A DUI MALESUADA
LOBORTIS AC AT EST INTEGER AT INTERDUM TORTOR VIVAMUS HENDRERIT CONSEQUAT
AUGUE QUISQUE ALIQUAM TELLUS NEC VESTIBULUM LOBORTIS RISUS TURPIS LUCTUS
LIGULA IN BIBENDUM FELIS SEM PULVINAR DOLOR VIVAMUS RHONCUS NISI GRAVIDA
PORTA VULPUTATE IPSUM LACUS PORTA RISUS A VULPUTATE MAGNA JUSTO A EST)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun read-from-file (file)
```

## utilities/reflect-list [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Order a list of numbers from least to greatest, then transpose the list so
that if an element is the second lowest, it will be replaced by the second
highest etc.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list or numbers.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list of numbers.
```

EXAMPLE

```(reflect-list '(1 4 3 5 9 6 2 7 8 8 9))

=> (9 6 7 5 1 4 8 3 2 2 1)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun reflect-list (list)
```

## utilities/remove-all [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Remove all of the specified elements from a list, returning a list
containing only those elements that are not in the first argument list.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A first list that is the list of items to remove.
- A second list that is the original list.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - A predicate for testing equality between the elements of the two lists.
Default = #'eq.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list.
```

EXAMPLE

```(remove-all '(3 5 8 13) '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13))

=> (1 2 4 6 7 9 10 11 12)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun remove-all (rm-list list &optional (test #' eq))
```

## utilities/remove-elements [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Remove a specified number of elements from a given list starting at a
specified position (0-based) within the list.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list.
- An integer that is the 0-based position within that list that will be the
first element to be removed.
- An integer that is the number of elements to remove.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list.
```

EXAMPLE

```(remove-elements '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7) 2 4)

=> (1 2 7)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun remove-elements (list start how-many)
```

## utilities/remove-more [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Remove all instances of a list of specified elements from an original
list. The predicate used to test the presence of the specified elements in
the original list must be specified by the user (such as #'eq, #'equalp,
#'= etc.)
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list.
- A predicate with which to test the presence of the specified elements.
- A sequence of elements to be removed from the given list.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list.
```

EXAMPLE

```(remove-more '(1 2 3 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 8) #'= 5 7 2)

=> (1 3 4 6 8)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun remove-more (list test &rest remove)
```

## utilities/replace-elements [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Replace the elements in list between start and end (inclusive) with the new
list.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list.
- An integer that is first position of the segment of the original list to
be replaced.
- An integer that is the last position of the segment of the original list
to be replaced.
- A list that is to replace the specified segment of the original
list. This list can be of a different length than that of the segment
of the original specified by the start and end positions.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list.
```

EXAMPLE

```(replace-elements '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9) 3 7 '(dog cat goldfish))

=> (1 2 3 DOG CAT GOLDFISH 9)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun replace-elements (list start end new)
```

## utilities/rescale [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` June 8th 2016, Edinburgh
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Given a value within an original range, return its value withing a new range
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - the value we want to rescale
- the original minimum
- the original maximum
- the new minimum
- the new maximum
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` keyword arguments:
:out-of-range. The function to call when the first argument is not within
the range of arguments two and three. This would normally be #'error,
#'warn or NIL. If #'warn or NIL, argument 1 will be hard-limited to the
original range. Default = #'error
```

RETURN VALUE

``` The value within the new range (a number)
```

EXAMPLE

```(rescale .5 0 1 0 100)
==> 50.0
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun rescale (val min max new-min new-max &optional (out-of-range #'error))
```

## utilities/round-if-close [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Round a decimal number if it is within a given tolerance to the next whole
number.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A decimal number.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - If the given number is this amount or less than the nearest whole number,
round the given number to the nearest whole number.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` If the given number is within the tolerance, return the number, otherwise
return the nearest whole number.
```

EXAMPLE

```(round-if-close 1.999998)

=> 1.999998

(round-if-close 1.999999)

=> 2
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun round-if-close (num &optional (tolerance 0.000001))
```

## utilities/scale-env [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Scale either the x-axis values, the data values, or both of a list of
break-point pairs by specified factors.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - An envelope in the form of a list of break-point pairs.
- A number that is the factor by which the y values (data segment of the
break-point pairs) are to be scaled.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` keyword arguments:
- :y-min. A number that is the minimum value for all y values after
scaling.  NB The -min/-max arguments are hard-limits only; they do not
factor into the arithmetic.
- :y-max. A number that is the maximum value for all y values after
scaling.
- :x-scaler. A number that is the factor by which to scale the x-axis
values of the break-point pairs.
- :x-min. A number that is the minimum value for all x values after
scaling. NB: This optional argument can only be used if a value has been
specified for the :x-scaler.
- :x-max. A number that is the maximum value for all x values after
scaling. NB: This optional argument can only be used if a value has been
specified for the :x-scaler.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` An envelope in the form of a list of break-point pairs.
```

EXAMPLE

```;;; Scaling only the y values.
(scale-env '(0 53 25 189 50 7 75 200 100 3) 0.5)

=> (0 26.5 25 94.5 50 3.5 75 100.0 100 1.5)

;;; Scaling the y values and setting a min and max for those values
(scale-env '(0 53 25 189 50 7 75 200 100 3) 0.5 :y-min 20 :y-max 100)

=> (0 26.5 25 94.5 50 20 75 100 100 20)

;;; Scaling only the x-axis values
(scale-env '(0 53 25 189 50 7 75 200 100 3) 1.0 :x-scaler 2)

=> (0 53.0 50 189.0 100 7.0 150 200.0 200 3.0)

;;; Scaling the x values and setting a min and max for those values
(scale-env '(0 53 25 189 50 7 75 200 100 3) 1.0 :x-scaler 2 :x-min 9 :x-max 90)

=> (9 53.0 50 189.0 90 7.0 90 200.0 90 3.0)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun scale-env (env y-scaler &key x-scaler
(x-min most-negative-double-float)
(y-min most-negative-double-float)
(x-max most-positive-double-float)
(y-max most-positive-double-float))
```

## utilities/secs-to-mins-secs [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Convert a number of seconds into a string of the form "24:41.723" where
seconds are always rounded to three decimal places (i.e. milliseconds).
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - the number of seconds
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` keyword arguments:
- :post-mins. The string used to separate minutes and seconds. Default ":"
- :post-secs. The string used to separate seconds and milliseconds.
Default "."
- :post-msecs. The string used to follow milliseconds. Default ""
- :same-width. Ensure minutes values are always two characters wide, like
seconds, i.e with a leading 0.
- :round. Round to the nearest second and don't print milliseconds. Default
NIL.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A string
```

EXAMPLE

```(secs-to-mins-secs 77.1232145)
"1:17.123"
(secs-to-mins-secs 67.1)
"1:07.100"
(secs-to-mins-secs 67.1 :same-width t)
"01:07.100"
(secs-to-mins-secs 67.1 :same-width t :post-secs "s")
"01:07s100"
(secs-to-mins-secs 67.1 :post-secs "secs" :post-mins "min" :post-msecs "msecs")
"1min07secs100msecs"
(secs-to-mins-secs 67.7 :same-width t :round t)
"01:08"
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun secs-to-mins-secs (seconds &key
round
(post-mins ":")
(post-secs ".")
(post-msecs "")
(same-width nil))
```

## utilities/semitones [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Return the sample-rate conversion factor required for transposing an audio
file by a specific number of semitones. The number of semitones can be
given as a decimal number, and may be positive or negative.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A number of semitones.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - A number that is the factor required to transpose by an octave.
Default = 2.0.
- A number that is the number of semitones per octave. Default = 12.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A number.
```

EXAMPLE

```;;; Usage with default values
(semitones 3)

=> 1.1892071

;;; Specifying a different number of semitones per octave
(semitones 3 2.0 13)

=> 1.1734605

;;; Specifying a different factor for transposing by an octave
(semitones 3 4.0)

=> 1.4142135

;;; Fractional semitones are allowed
(semitones 3.72)

=> 1.2397077

;;; Negative semitones are also allowed
(semitones -3.72)

=> 0.80664176
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun semitones (st &optional (octave-size 2.0) (divisions-per-octave 12))
```

## utilities/setf-last [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Change the last element in a given list to a specified new element.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list.
- The new last element of that list.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` Returns the new last element.
```

EXAMPLE

```(let ((l '(1 2 3 4 5)))
(setf-last l 'dog)
l)

=> (1 2 3 4 DOG)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defmacro setf-last (list new-last)
```

## utilities/sort-symbol-list [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Sort a list of symbols alphabetically ascending, case-insensitive.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` A list of symbols.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` The same list of symbols sorted alphabetically ascending, case-insensitive.
```

EXAMPLE

```(sort-symbol-list '(Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur adipiscing))

=> (ADIPISCING AMET CONSECTETUR DOLOR IPSUM LOREM SIT)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun sort-symbol-list (list)
```

## utilities/splice [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Insert the elements of a first list into a second list beginning at a
specified index (0-based).
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list that contains the elements to be inserted into the second list.
- A list into which the elements of the first argument are to be inserted.
- An integer that is the index within the second list where the elements
are to be inserted.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` - A list.
```

EXAMPLE

```(splice '(dog cat goldfish) '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9) 3)

=> (1 2 3 DOG CAT GOLDFISH 4 5 6 7 8 9)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun splice (elements into-list where)
```

## utilities/split-groups [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Create a list consisting of as many repetitions of a specified number as
will fit into a given greater number, with the last item in the new list
being the value of any remainder.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A number that is to be split into repetitions of a specified smaller
number (the second argument).
- The number that is to be the repeating item in the new list. This number
must be smaller than the first number.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list consisting of repetitions of the specified number, with the last
element being any possible remainder.
```

EXAMPLE

```(split-groups 101 17)

=> (17 17 17 17 17 16)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun split-groups (num divider)
```

## utilities/split-into-sub-groups [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Create a new list consisting of sublists made from the elements of the
original flat list, whose lengths are determined by the second argument to
the function.

NB: The lengths given in the second argument are not required to add up to
the length of the original list. If their sum is less than the original
list, the resulting list of sublists will only contain a segment of the
original elements. If their sum is greater than the length of the
original list, the last sublist in the new list will be shorter than
the corresponding group value.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A flat list.
- A list of integers that are the lengths of the consecutive subgroups
into which the original list is to be divided.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list of lists.
```

EXAMPLE

```;; Used with a list of subgroup lengths whose sum is equal to the length of the
;; original list
(split-into-sub-groups '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10) '(2 2 3 2 1))

=> ((1 2) (3 4) (5 6 7) (8 9) (10))

;; Used with a list of subgroup lengths whose sum is less than the length of the
;; original list
(split-into-sub-groups '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10) '(2 1))

=> ((1 2) (3))

;; Used with a list of subgroup lengths whose sum is greater than the length of
;; the original list
(split-into-sub-groups '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10) '(2 3 17))

=> ((1 2) (3 4 5) (6 7 8 9 10))
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun split-into-sub-groups (list groups)
```

## utilities/split-into-sub-groups2 [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Create a new list of lists by splitting the original flat list into
sublists of the specified length.

NB: The length given as the second argument is not required to be fit
evenly into the length of the original flat list. If the original list
is not evenly divisible by the specified length, the resulting list of
sublists will contain a final sublist of a different length.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A flat list.
- An integer that is the length of each of the sublists to be created.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list of lists.
```

EXAMPLE

```;; The second argument fits evenly into the length of the original list.
(split-into-sub-groups2 '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12) 3)

=> ((1 2 3) (4 5 6) (7 8 9) (10 11 12))

;; The second argument does not fit evenly into the length of the original
;; list.

(split-into-sub-groups2 '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12) 5)

=> ((1 2 3 4 5) (6 7 8 9 10) (11 12))
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun split-into-sub-groups2 (list length)
```

## utilities/split-into-sub-groups3 [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Split a given flat list into sublists of the specified length, putting any
remaining elements, if there are any, into the last sublist.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A flat list.
- An integer that is the length of the new sublists.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list of lists.
```

EXAMPLE

```(split-into-sub-groups3 '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12) 3)

=> ((1 2 3) (4 5 6) (7 8 9) (10 11 12))

(split-into-sub-groups3 '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12) 5)

=> ((1 2 3 4 5) (6 7 8 9 10 11 12))
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun split-into-sub-groups3 (list length)
```

## utilities/split-into-sub-groups4 [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` August 28th 2018, Heidhausen
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Split into sub-groups with lengths defined by the integers in the second
argument list. The difference here to related functions is that the given
lengths will repeat circularly until no more elements of the first argument
remain.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - the list to split into sub-groups
- a list of lengths, to be repeated
```

RETURN VALUE

``` a list of sublists
```

EXAMPLE

```(split-into-sub-groups4 '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12) '(3 4))
==> ((1 2 3) (4 5 6 7) (8 9 10) (11 12))

(split-into-sub-groups4 '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14) '(3 4))
==> ((1 2 3) (4 5 6 7) (8 9 10) (11 12 13 14))

(split-into-sub-groups4 '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12) '(1 2 3 4))
==> '((1) (2 3) (4 5 6) (7 8 9 10) (11) (12))
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun split-into-sub-groups4 (list lengths)
```

## utilities/srt [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Return the semitone transposition for a given sampling rate conversion
factor.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A number that is a sample-rate conversion factor.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - A number that is the factor required for transposing one octave.
- A number that is the number of scale degrees in an octave.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A number.
```

EXAMPLE

```;;; Using the defaults
(srt 1.73)

=> 9.4893

;;; Using a sample-rate conversion factor of 4.0 for the octave and specifying
;;; 13 divisions of the octave
(srt 1.73 4.0 13)

=> 5.14
```

SYNOPSIS

```(let ((last8vesize 0)
(log8ve 0.0)) ;; so we don't have to recalculate each time
(defun srt (srt &optional (octave-size 2.0) (divisions-per-octave 12)
;; MDE Tue Feb  7 16:59:45 2012 -- round so we don't get tiny
;; fractions of semitones due to float inaccuracies?
(round-to 0.0001))
```

## utilities/string-replace [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Replace specified segments of a string with a new specified string.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A string that is the string segment to be replaced.
- A string that is the string with which the specified string segment is to
be replaced.
- The string in which the specified segment is to be sought and replaced.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A string.
```

EXAMPLE

```(string-replace "flat" "\\flat" "bflat clarinet")

=> "b\\flat clarinet"
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun string-replace (what with string)
```

## utilities/swap-elements [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Swap the order of each consecutive pair of elements in a list.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list.
```

EXAMPLE

```(swap-elements '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10))

=> (2 1 4 3 6 5 8 7 10 9)

(swap-elements '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9))

=> (2 1 4 3 6 5 8 7 9)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun swap-elements (list)
```

## utilities/update-app-src [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DATE

``` June 1st 2013
```

DESCRIPTION

``` TEMPORARILY DISABLED DUE TO SVN SERVER ACCESS RESTRICTIONS.
NB This function currently works in SBCL and CCL on UNIX systems only.

For users of the slippery chicken app, this function will update the source
code of the app to the latest in the online subversion (svn) repository.
An internet connection is therefore necessary.

The first time it is run it will delete the current source code and
download all the new source code, so make sure to back up if you've
modified the source code yourself (not recommended).  When it is run from
then on, it will only update the source code that is out of date.

Once the source code is updated, you'll need to restart the app or just
Lisp for the changes to be recompiled.

**NB** The first time you call this function, you might get a "certificate
error".  In order to accept the certificate, start the terminal application
and type the following:

cd /tmp/
svn co https://svn.ecdf.ed.ac.uk/repo/user/medward2/sc-tags/sc-latest/src

That should give you a prompt in the terminal from which you can accept the
certificate.  Then the next time you try it from Lisp the certificate
should not cause a problem.

Users without the app can always download the latest source code in a
terminal by issuing the following command.
svn co https://svn.ecdf.ed.ac.uk/repo/user/medward2/sc-tags/sc-latest/src
```

ARGUMENTS

``` The full path to the slippery-chicken application, minus the last slash.
Remember that this can't include any spaces in file/folder names
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` keyword arguments:
- :rm.  The path to the shell 'rm' command.  Default = "/bin/rm"
- :svn.  The path to the shell 'svn' command.  Default = "/usr/bin/svn"
```

RETURN VALUE

``` The shell return value of the call to SVN, usually 0 on success.
```

EXAMPLE

```Running for the first time:
(update-app-src "/tmp/sc-app/slippery-chicken.app")
A    /tmp/sc-app/slippery-chicken.app/Contents/Resources/sc/src/sndfile.lsp
A    /tmp/sc-app/slippery-chicken.app/Contents/Resources/sc/src/osc.lsp
A    /tmp/sc-app/slippery-chicken.app/Contents/Resources/sc/src/osc-sc.lsp
[...]
Checked out revision 3608.
0

or after successfully updating a previously updated version:
...
At revision 3608.
0
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun update-app-src (path-to-app &key (rm "/bin/rm") (svn "/usr/bin/svn"))
```

## utilities/wavelab-to-audacity-marker-file [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Write a .txt file suitable for import to audacity with the same name and in
the same directory as the file argument.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A string that is the name of a wavelab marker file, including directory
path and extension.
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` - An integer that is the sampling rate of the sound file to which the
wavelab marker file refers. This value will affect the times of the
output.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` Returns T and prints the number of markers read to the listener.
```

EXAMPLE

```(wavelab-to-audacity-marker-file "/path/to/24-7.mrk"  44100)

```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun wavelab-to-audacity-marker-file (file &optional (sampling-rate 44100))
```

## utilities/wrap-list [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

DESCRIPTION

``` Shift the elements of a list to start at a specified position and wrap to
the beginning of the list to the list's tail.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list.
- An integer which is the 0-based position in the original list where the
new list is to begin.
```

RETURN VALUE

``` A list.
```

EXAMPLE

```(wrap-list '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9) 4)

=> (5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4)
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun wrap-list (list start)
```

## utilities/write-list-to-coll [ Functions ]

[ Top ] [ utilities ] [ Functions ]

AUTHOR

``` Daniel Ross (mr.danielross[at]gmail[dot]com)
```

DATE

``` Tue 18 Feb 2020 15:38:40 GMT
```

DESCRIPTION

``` Turn a list of lists into a text file, formatted to be read by the MaxMSP
[coll] object. This is a bit like gen-max-coll-file (see set-palette.lsp)
but instead works with any data in a list.
```

ARGUMENTS

``` - A list of lists in the form '((a b c) (d e f))
```

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

``` keyword arguments
:file - the output file. Default = "/tmp/sc-max-coll.txt"
:base - the minimum number for coll indexing. In the resulting output file,
each list in the list of lists will be preceeded by an (increasing) integer
and a comma. This argument sets the base value of that integer. Default = 0.
:capitalize - Should any outputted text be capitalized or not?
Default = NIL.
:if-exists - what to do if the file already exists. This argument is passed
Default = :supercede
:prefix - add a string prefix to the item number. Default = NIL.
:alt-label - if you do not want the items labels to be consecutive numbers,
then you can here either provide a list of lists or a function. If a list of
lists, this must be the same length as the first argument. If a function, it
must be called with the item number (which increases incrementally from
base).
```

RETURN VALUE

``` The output file location
```

EXAMPLE

```(let ((l '((hello!)(how are you?)(very well thank you.)(1 2 3 4))))
(write-list-to-coll l :base 6))

=> "/tmp/sc-max-coll.txt"

The resulting text file will looks like this when opened:

6, hello!;
7, how are you?;
8, very well thank you.;
9, 1 2 3 4;

;; DJR Tue 3 Mar 2020 13:52:34 GMT
(let ((l '((hello!)(how are you?)(very well thank you.)(1 2 3 4))))
(write-list-to-coll l :base 15
:alt-label #'(lambda (count)
(let ((l '(foo bar)))
(nth (mod count 2) l)))
:prefix "yes_"))

=> "/tmp/sc-max-coll.txt"

The resulting text file will looks like this when opened:

yes_bar, hello!;
yes_foo, how are you?;
yes_bar, very well thank you.;
yes_foo, 1 2 3 4;
```

SYNOPSIS

```(defun write-list-to-coll (data-list &key (base 0)
(file "/tmp/sc-max-coll.txt")
(capitalize nil)
(if-exists :supersede)
;; DJR Tue 3 Mar 2020 13:52:34 GMT
(prefix "")
alt-label)
```